引用本文:张小琼,沈伟等.典型化工污水处理厂废水及受纳水体的生物急性毒性监测方法应用研究[J].环境监控与预警,2020,12(4):22-27
ZHANG Xiao-qiong,SHEN Wei.Application of Biological Acute Toxicity Monitoring Method to Wastewater and Receiving Water in Typical Chemical Wastewater Treatment Plants[J].Environmental Monitoring and Forewarning,2020,12(4):22-27
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典型化工污水处理厂废水及受纳水体的生物急性毒性监测方法应用研究
张小琼,沈伟等
作者单位
张小琼1,2,沈伟1,2 1.江苏省环境保护水环境生物监测重点实验室江苏 常州 2130012.江苏省常州环境监测中心江苏 常州 213001 
摘要:
为了研究生物急性监测方法对监测典型化工污水处理厂废水的适用性,选择2家常州市典型的化工园区污水处理厂(“常A”和“常B”),进行了发光细菌、藻类、大型溞和斑马鱼卵4种不同层次受试生物的急性毒性检测。研究表明,发光细菌急性毒性、藻类叶绿素荧光毒性在2个污水处理厂中均被检测到,发光细菌急性毒性通常进水大于出水,但在投放大量氧化消毒剂时,出水表现出剧毒。藻类叶绿素荧光毒性最高值出现在常B进水中。大型溞和斑马鱼卵急性毒性仅在常B进出水样中有检出,受纳河道下游水样虽未表现出急性毒性,但可观察到斑马鱼卵各类发育畸形。4种生物急性毒性检测方法中,发光细菌适用范围最广,藻类、大型溞和斑马鱼卵急性毒性方法可根据监测目的和工业园区特点相应选择。实验结论可为化工污水处理厂尾水排放过程中生物毒性监测的常态化提供方法选择,为管理部门制定排放标准提供依据。
关键词:  化工废水  发光细菌  藻类  大型溞  斑马鱼卵
DOI:
分类号:X835
文献标识码:B
基金项目:国家水体污染控制与治理科技重大专项基金资助项目(2017ZX07202-01);江苏省环境监测科研基金资助项目(1819);国家环境保护标准基金资助项目(2015-9);江苏省“六大人才高峰”基金资助项目(JNHB-118);江苏省重点研发计划(社会发展)基金资助项目(BE2019708)
Application of Biological Acute Toxicity Monitoring Method to Wastewater and Receiving Water in Typical Chemical Wastewater Treatment Plants
ZHANG Xiao-qiong,SHEN Wei
Abstract:
In order to study the applicability of biological acute toxicity monitoring method to the monitoring of effluent from typical chemical wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), 4 levels of subject creatures, including photobacterium, algae,Daphnia magna and Danio rerio were selected to test the acute toxicity of the effluent from 2 typical chemical WWTPs (Chang A and Chang B). Acute toxicity of luminescent bacteria and chlorophyll-fluorescence toxicity of plant algae were detected in both two WWTPs. The acute toxicity of influent was usually greater than effluent, but the effluent showed highly toxicity when a large number of oxidizing disinfectants were added. The maximum value of chlorophyll-fluorescence toxicity appeared in the influent of Chang B. The acute toxicity of Daphnia magna and Danio rerio was only detected in the water samples from Chang B. Though the water samples downstream the receiving river showed no acute toxicity, the development malformation of Danio rerio were observed. Among the four methods of acute toxicity detection, luminescent bacteria are the most widely used, and the methods of acute toxicity of plant algal chlorophyll fluorescence,Daphnia magna and Danio rerio are alternative according to the purpose of monitoring and the characteristics of industrial parks. The experimental results can provide a choice for normalizing the monitoring of biological toxicity in the process of effluent discharge in industrial WWTPs and provide a basis for the management department to formulate the discharge standards.
Key words:  Chemical wastewater  Luminescent bacteria  Algae  Daphnia magna  Danio rerio