引用本文:张悦清, 张爱国, 曹莉, 余佳, 孔德洋.长江流域全氟化合物污染态势与生态效应[J].环境监控与预警,2020,12(5):60-69
ZHANG Yue-qing, ZHANG Ai-guo, CAO Li, YU Jia, KONG De-yang.Contamination Status and Ecological Effects of Perfluoroalkyl Substances in the Yangtze Basin[J].Environmental Monitoring and Forewarning,2020,12(5):60-69
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长江流域全氟化合物污染态势与生态效应
张悦清, 张爱国, 曹莉, 余佳, 孔德洋
作者单位
张悦清1,2, 张爱国1, 曹莉1,2, 余佳1,2, 孔德洋1, 2* 1. 生态环境部南京环境科学研究所江苏 南京 2100422. 国家环境保护农药环境评价与污染控制重点实验室江苏 南京 210042 
摘要:
简述了PFASs在长江流域上、中、下游水环境中的空间分布格局和时间变化趋势,探讨了其生物蓄积效应、淡水生物毒性效应和生态风险评价。指出,PFASs广泛赋存于长江流域从上游至下游的干流和支流及湖泊之中,其平均值低于我国其他主要流域;PFOA在长江流域内环境浓度最高,而PFOS在近10年环境管控措施下浓度降至极低,PFBS、PFBA和PFHxA等短链物质正作为替代物使用,可能在未来出现升高趋势。长江流域内水生动物(包括食用鱼类)能够从环境中富集PFASs并通过食物链传输,在其血液、肌肉和内脏中蓄积。虽然目前长江流域生态风险评价表明PFASs总体上风险为低级,但局部高浓度地区仍可能对敏感生物造成基因表达受损等毒性效应。
关键词:  长江流域  全氟化合物  有机污染物  生态效应
DOI:
分类号:X522;X820.4
文献标识码:A
基金项目:江苏省环保科研基金资助项目(2017024);中央级公益性科研院所基本科研业务专项基金资助项目(GYZX200204)
Contamination Status and Ecological Effects of Perfluoroalkyl Substances in the Yangtze Basin
ZHANG Yue-qing, ZHANG Ai-guo, CAO Li, YU Jia, KONG De-yang
Abstract:
The present study reviewed the spatial distribution and the temporal trend of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in the upper, middle and down reaches of the Yangtze Basin, as well as the bioaccumulation effect, ecotoxicology for fresh water wildlife and ecological risk assessment of PFASs. PFASs are ubiquitous in the mainstream, tributaries and lakes of the whole Yangtze. However, the overall level of PFASs in the Yangtze is lower than those in the other large basins in China. Among the tens of congeners of PFASs, PFOA often contributes the highest concentration. The level of PFOS is decreasing under 10 year environmental control, while PFBS, PFBA and PFHxA are starting to increase for being alternatives. PFASs can be concentrated by the aquatic organisms (including edible fish) and transferred through the food chains. PFASs are accumulated in the blood, muscle and internal organs of the wildlife. Although the ecological risk assessments suggest very low risk from PFASs in the Yangtze, relatively high concentration occurred in some areas may still cause toxic effect, such as gene expression damage, over the sensitive species.
Key words:  Yangtze River basin  Perfluoroalkyl Substances  Organic Pollutants  Ecological Effect