引用本文:施昱琳,杨建勋,刘苗苗,毕军.电生理技术在大气PM2.5污染健康风险管控中的应用[J].环境监控与预警,2021,13(5):60-66
SHI Yu-lin, YANG Jian-xun, LIU Miao-miao, BI Jun.Application of Electrophysiological Technology in Health Risk Control of Atmospheric PM2.5 Pollution[J].Environmental Monitoring and Forewarning,2021,13(5):60-66
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电生理技术在大气PM2.5污染健康风险管控中的应用
施昱琳,杨建勋,刘苗苗,毕军
作者单位
施昱琳,杨建勋,刘苗苗*,毕军 污染控制与资源化国家重点实验室南京大学环境学院江苏 南京 210023 
摘要:
严峻的大气颗粒物污染导致的能见度下降和城镇灰色景观可能会阻碍居民压力恢复路径,损害居民身心健康。为研究大气PM2.5污染对人体压力恢复的影响,基于压力恢复理论设计了一项生理心理学实验。随机招募127名被试(女性63名,男性64名),并随机分为6组(编号为G10、G30、G50、G100、G160和G260),每组被试在压力恢复阶段分别对应观看ρ(PM2.5)平均值分别为10,30,50,100,160和260 μg/m3的实景照片。结合压力自评量表和皮肤电、心电等电生理技术测量了被试观看不同环境ρ(PM2.5)实景照片时的压力恢复比例。结果显示,G10、G30、G50组被试的皮肤电水平、心率和心率变异性恢复比例约为40%~50%,50%~70%和60%~80%,G100、G160、G260组被试的皮肤电水平、心率和心率变异性恢复比例约为20%~40%,10%~40%和30%~50%,即观看ρ(PM2.5)低于50 μg/m3实景照片的被试在3 min内的压力恢复比例比观看ρ(PM2.5)高于100 μg/m3的实景照片的被试高20%以上。基于皮肤电的逐10 s压力恢复比例分析显示,2 min内的清洁空气照片(G10、G30、G50组)暴露能使压力恢复至初始水平的60%左右,而暴露时间的增加可能会使被试产生疲劳和厌倦,从而导致压力恢复比例下降。指出,电生理技术是对自评量表测量的有力补充,能够客观、有效地测量压力水平变化,丰富了开展环境健康风险评估的手段,可为大气污染心理健康风险管控提供参考和借鉴。
关键词:  电生理技术  细颗粒物  心理健康  健康风险
DOI:
分类号:X321;R12
基金项目:国家自然科学基金青年科学基金资助项目(71804065);国家自然科学基金创新研究群体基金资助项目(71921003);江苏省自然科学基金资助项目(BK20180350)
Application of Electrophysiological Technology in Health Risk Control of Atmospheric PM2.5 Pollution
SHI Yu-lin, YANG Jian-xun, LIU Miao-miao, BI Jun
Abstract:
Visibility decline and urban gray landscape caused by atmospheric particulate pollution may hinder the path of stress recovery and damage the physical and mental health of residents. In order to study the effect of PM2.5 pollution on stress recovery, a physio psychological experiment was designed based on the stress recovery theory. A total of 127 subjects (63 females and 64 males) were recruited and divided into 6 groups (numbered G10, G30, G50, G100, G160 and G260) randomly. During the stress recovery stage, subjects in each group were asked to view actual pictures with average ρ(PM2.5) values of 10,30,50,100,160 and 260 μg/m3 respectively. Combined with self rating stress scale and electrophysiological techniques such as electrodermal activity (EDA) and electrocardiogram (ECG), the stress recovery rates of subjects when watching actual photos of different ambient PM2.5 concentration were tested. Results showed that recovery rates of skin conductance level, heart rate and heart rate variability in G10, G30 and G50 groups were about 40%~50%, 50%~70% and 60%~80%, and the recovery rates of skin conductance level, heart rate and heart rate variability in G100, G160 and G260 groups were about 20%~40%, 10%~40% and 30%~50%, that is, subjects exposed to pictures with PM2.5 concentration lower than 50 μg/m3 had more than 20% higher stress recovery rates than those exposed to pictures with PM2.5 concentration higher than 100 μg/m3. Analysis of the changes of skin conductance stress recovery percentage by 10 seconds showed that exposure to clean air photos (group G10, G30 and G50) within 2 minutes could restore the stress to about 60% of initial level, while the increase of exposure time might cause fatigue and boredom, thus leading to the decrease of stress recovery rate. It is pointed out that electrophysiological technology is a powerful supplement to the self rating scale to measure the changes of stress level objectively and effectively. In addition, application of electrophysiological technology will rich the means of environmental health risk assessment, and provide reference for the mental health risk management and control of air pollution.
Key words:  Electrophysiological technology  Fine particulate matter  Mental health  Health risk