引用本文:张庆吉,王金东等.基于底栖动物的水质生物学评价——以江苏骆马湖为例[J].环境监控与预警,2022,14(6):57-63
ZHANG Qing-ji, WANG Jin-donget al.Biological Assessment of Water Quality Based on Macroinvertebrates—A Case Study in Lake Luoma, Jiangsu Province[J].Environmental Monitoring and Forewarning,2022,14(6):57-63
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基于底栖动物的水质生物学评价——以江苏骆马湖为例
张庆吉,王金东等1,2,3
1.南京大学地理与海洋科学学院,江苏 南京 210023;2.中国科学院南京地理与湖泊研究所,湖泊与环境国家重点实验室,江苏 南京 210008;3.江苏省骆运水利工程管理处,江苏 宿迁 223800
摘要:
基于2018年1—11月骆马湖水质和底栖动物逐月监测数据,利用Goodnight指数(GBI)、生物学污染指数(BPI)、Shannon Wiener指数(H′)等生物学指数对水质现状进行了评价。结果表明,骆马湖ρ(总氮)年均值为2.31 mg/L,ρ(总氮)和ρ(溶解氧)呈先下降后上升趋势;ρ(总磷)年均值为0.05 mg/L,先上升于8月达到峰值(0.15 mg/L)后下降;高锰酸盐指数呈先上升后下降趋势;ρ(氟离子)呈逐渐下降趋势,水温和电导率存在明显季节变化,pH值呈逐渐升高趋势。共鉴定出底栖动物27种,其中软体动物5种,环节动物7种,节肢动物15种。铜锈环棱螺(Bellamya aeruginosa)、红裸须摇蚊(Propsilocerus akamusi)、纹沼螺(Parafossarulus striatulus)、苏氏尾鳃蚓(Branchiura sowerbyi)、霍甫水丝蚓(Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri)、多巴小摇蚊(Microchironomus tabarui)和中国长足摇蚊(Tanypus chinensis)是现阶段优势种。全湖底栖动物年均密度为174.5个/m2,年均生物量为24.93 g/m2,表现出明显的时空差异。水质评价结果表明,骆马湖水环境处于中污染状态。结合近年来研究结果,骆马湖底质荒漠化现象趋于好转,但富营养化趋势正在加深。
关键词:  浅水湖泊  水质评价  群落结构  营养盐  底栖动物
DOI:
分类号:Q958.8;X824
基金项目:国家自然科学基金资助项目(42171119);中国科学院青年创新促进会项目(2020316)
Biological Assessment of Water Quality Based on Macroinvertebrates—A Case Study in Lake Luoma, Jiangsu Province
ZHANG Qing-ji, WANG Jin-donget al1,2,3
1.School of Geography and Ocean Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing,Jiangsu 210023, China;2.State Key Laboratory of Lake Science and Environment, Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing,Jiangsu 210008, China;3.Jiangsu Luoyun Hydraulic Engineering Management Division, Suqian,Jiangsu 223800, China
Abstract:
Based on the monthly monitoring data of water quality and macroinvertebrates in Lake Luoma from January to November 2018, the water quality status were evaluated using biological indexes such as the Goodnight index, BPI index, and Shannon Wiener index. The results showed that the annual average value of total nitrogen in Lake Luoma was 2.31 mg/L,ρ(TN)and ρ(DO)were indicated a trend of first decreasing and then increasing. The annual average of total phosphorus was 0.05 mg/L, which first rose to the peak in August (0.15 mg/L) and then decreased. Permanganate index showed a trend of first increasing and then decreasing; while fluoride ions was gradually decreasing, and temperature and conductivity showed obvious seasonal changes, pH value was gradually increasing. A total of 27 species of macroinvertebrates were identified, including 5 species of mollusks, 7 species of annelids, and 15 species of arthropods.Bellamya aeruginosa,Propsilocerus akamusi,Parafossarulus striatulus, Branchiura sowerbyi,Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri,Microchironomus tabarui and Tanypus chinensis were the dominant species. The average annual density of macroinvertebrates in the whole lake was 174.5 ind/m2, and the yearly average biomass was 24.93 g/m2, showing noticeable temporal and spatial differences. The results of the water quality assessment showed that the water environment of Lake Luoma was in moderate pollution, and the dominant species tended to increase in oligochaete groups. The desertification at the bottom of Luoma Lake tends to be improved but tends to be eutrophic.
Key words:  Shallow lake  Water quality evaluation  Community structure  Nutrient  Macroinvertebrates