引用本文:赵旭辉,王含月,张付海,朱余.安徽省春节期间烟花爆竹燃放对环境空气质量的影响研究[J].环境监控与预警,2022,14(6):22-31
ZHAO Xu-hui, WANG Han-yue, ZHANG Fu-hai, ZHU Yu.Research on the Impact of Fireworks on Ambient Air Quality in Anhui During the Spring Festival[J].Environmental Monitoring and Forewarning,2022,14(6):22-31
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安徽省春节期间烟花爆竹燃放对环境空气质量的影响研究
赵旭辉,王含月,张付海,朱余
安徽省生态环境监测中心,安徽 合肥 230071
摘要:
为研究烟花爆竹集中燃放对江淮地区环境空气质量的影响,基于近地面常规空气质量参数、颗粒物组分参数、激光雷达监测等数据资料,系统分析了2022年春节期间烟花爆竹燃放对安徽省主要城市和县域环境空气质量的影响。研究表明,2022年春节期间安徽省环境空气质量总体好于2019—2021年平均水平,但受局部烟花爆竹燃放和不利气象条件(低温、小风、高湿、静稳)的叠加影响,产生的环境效应(颗粒物浓度峰值较高、影响范围较广)依然较为严重。重点区域(合肥和淮北)大气颗粒物组分中硝酸根离子(NO-3)、硫酸根离子(SO2-4)和铵根离子(NH+4)等主要离子占比有所下降(降幅为3.4%~12.1%),烟花爆竹燃放示踪组分(钾离子、氯离子、金属元素等)均出现了明显的峰值过程,且金属元素浓度占比涨幅明显高于水溶性离子。烟花爆竹燃放对颗粒物的垂直分布和传输沉降过程产生显著影响,燃放排放主要以球形细颗粒物为主;不利气象条件下的本地烟花爆竹燃放叠加周边污染传输影响是造成主城区空气质量显著恶化的主要原因。基于ρ(PM2.5)/ρ(CO)的比值法估算,集中燃放时段,烟花爆竹燃放对城建区PM2.5质量浓度的绝对贡献范围为4~701μg/m3,平均值达159 μg/m3;烟花爆竹燃放对PM2.5质量浓度的贡献量和贡献率呈现皖中>皖北>皖南的分布特征。主城区的禁燃措施对于春节期间空气质量的改善起到了关键作用,同时需要加强城市周边区域的烟花爆竹燃放管控措施。
关键词:  春节  烟花爆竹  环境空气  颗粒物  贡献率  安徽省
DOI:
分类号:X823
基金项目:国家重点研发计划基金资助项目(2018YFC0213804); 国家大气重污染成因与治理攻关基金资助项目(DQGG202117)
Research on the Impact of Fireworks on Ambient Air Quality in Anhui During the Spring Festival
ZHAO Xu-hui, WANG Han-yue, ZHANG Fu-hai, ZHU Yu
Anhui Ecoenvironmental Monitoring Centre, Hefei,Anhui 230071,China
Abstract:
The impacts of fireworks on ambient air quality in the Yangtze Huaihe region was investigated in this study, based on air quality parameters near the ground, particulate matter component and lidar data, this paper systematically analyzed the impacts of fireworks on the ambient air quality of major cities and counties in Anhui Province during the Spring Festival in 2022. The study found that the ambient air quality in Anhui Province during the Spring Festival in 2022 was better than the average level from 〖JP+1〗2019 to 2021 significantly. However, the influence of superposition of local fireworks and adverse meteorological conditions (low temperature, low wind speed, high humidity and static stability), and the environmental impact (particulate matter concentration had high peak value and wide reach) was still serious. The proportion of water soluble ions such as NO-3, SO2-4 and NH+4 in atmospheric particulate matter components in key regions (Hefei and Huaibei) decreased (with the decrease ranged from 3.4% to 12.1%). And the trace components (K+, Cl-, metal elements, etc.) of fireworks had an obvious process of peak concentration increasing dramatically, and the increase of metal element concentration were significantly higher than that of water soluble ions. The fireworks lighting had significant impact on the process of the vertical distribution, transmission and deposition of particulate matter, and the morphology were mainly spherical fine particulate matters. And the main reason for the significant deterioration of air quality in the main urban area was the superimposed emission of local fireworks and the impact of surrounding pollution transmission under adverse meteorological conditions. The estimation results by quantitative method of ratio of PM2.5 to CO showed that the impacts of fireworks on PM2.5 concentration in urban construction areas of the whole province ranged from 4 to 701 μg/m3, and the average was 159 μg/m3. The contribution amount and contribution rate of fireworks to PM2.5 concentration showed the distribution characteristics that the Central part of Anhui was larger than the Northern part of Anhui which was larger than the Southern part of Anhui. It indicated that measures of banning the setting off fireworks in the main urban area had played a key role in improving air quality, and it was necessary to strengthen the control measures for setting off fireworks in the surrounding areas of the city.
Key words:  Spring Festival  Firework  Ambient air  Particulate matter  Contribution rate  Anhui Province