引用本文:单阳,张涛,胡冠九,张宗祥.化工企业废气BTEX排放及周边居民区空气暴露健康风险分析[J].环境监控与预警,2022,14(5):107-113
SHAN Yang, ZHANG Tao, HU Guan-jiu, ZHANG Zong-xiang.Analysis of BTEX Emission from Chemical Enterprises and Health Risk of Air Exposure in Surrounding Residential Areas[J].Environmental Monitoring and Forewarning,2022,14(5):107-113
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化工企业废气BTEX排放及周边居民区空气暴露健康风险分析
单阳,张涛,胡冠九,张宗祥1,2
1.江苏省环境监测中心,国家环境保护地表水有机分析重点实验室,江苏 南京 210019;2.江苏省泰州环境监测中心,江苏 泰州 225300
摘要:
采用气相色谱-质谱法,于2016年9月和12月对江苏省某化工企业与苯系物排放相关的废气排放口和周边居民区环境空气中苯、甲苯、邻二甲苯、间/对二甲苯、乙苯等5种典型苯系物(BTEX)的排放和区域污染特征进行分析,并开展BTEX来源分析及人体健康风险评估研究。结果表明,化工企业有机废气排放口苯质量浓度最高,超过《化学工业挥发性有机物排放标准》(DB32/3151—2016)限值,超标率达26.4%;环境空气中BTEX平均质量浓度为47.31μg/m3,BTEX检出率均超过80%,秋季和冬季BTEX质量浓度分别为72.5和22.2μg/m3,各组分质量浓度大小排序为:苯>甲苯>乙苯>间/对-二甲苯>邻-二甲苯,与废气排放口浓度大小顺序一致;与其他城市和地区进行比较,BTEX质量浓度处于中等水平。比值分析法研究BTEX来源结果表明,本地排放源是化工企业周边环境空气BTEX主要来源,一定程度上也受交通排放、化石燃料燃烧等污染源的影响。人体健康风险评估结果表明,BTEX单组分非致癌风险值(HQ)在安全范围之内,各监测点位 BTEX的HQ均<1,非致癌风险可以忽略不计;苯的致癌风险值(R)为7.33×10-6~7.49×10-5,均超过10,有一定的致癌风险,且苯是I类致癌物质,应采取源头控制措施避免健康风险。
关键词:  苯系物;化工企业;环境空气  居民区;健康风险
DOI:
分类号:X823
基金项目:江苏省环保科研课题基金资助项目(2018001)
Analysis of BTEX Emission from Chemical Enterprises and Health Risk of Air Exposure in Surrounding Residential Areas
SHAN Yang, ZHANG Tao, HU Guan-jiu, ZHANG Zong-xiang1,2
1. Jiangsu Provincial Environmental Monitoring Center, National Key Laboratory for Organic Analysis of Surface Water for Environmental Protection, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210019,China;2. Jiangsu Taizhou Environmental Monitoring Center, Taizhou, Jiangsu 225300, China
Abstract:
Taking a chemical enterprise in Jiangsu as the research object, organic exhaust gas samples and ambient air samples from surrounding residential areas were collected in September and December 2016, and gas chromatography mass spectrometry was used to study the emission and regional pollution characteristics of BTEX (Benzene, Toluene, O xylene, M/P xylene and Ethylbenzene), and their health risks to human body were evaluated. The results showed that the mass concentration of benzene at the outlet of organic waste gas of chemical enterprises was the highest, exceeding the limit of emission standard of volatile organic compounds in chemical industry (DB32/3151—2016), and the exceeding rate was 26.4%. The detection rate of BTEX at the air monitoring points around the enterprise exceeded 80%. The mass concentrations of BTEX in autumn and winter were 72.5 μg / m3 and 22.2 μg/m3 respectively, which met the requirements of relevant standards. The mass concentrations of each component from high to low were as follows: Benzene > Toluene > Ethylbenzene > M/P xylene > O xylene, which was consistent with the concentration at the exhaust outlet. The average mass concentration of BTEX during the monitoring period was 47.3 μg / m3. Compared with other cities and regions, the concentration of BTEX in the ambient air of the study area was at a medium level. The source of BTEX was studied by ratio analysis, which showed that the ambient air BTEX around chemical enterprises mainly came from local emission sources, and also came from the impact of traffic emissions, fossil fuel combustion and other pollution sources. The non carcinogenic risk value of single component of BTEX was within the safety range, and the non carcinogenic risk value of BTEX at each sampling point was far less than 1, indicating that the non carcinogenic risk of BTEX in the ambient air around the chemical enterprise during the monitoring period was negligible. The carcinogenic risk value of benzene was in the range of 7.33 × 10-6~7.49 × 10-5, more than 10-6, exhibiting a certain risk of cancer. Benzene is a class 1 carcinogen, and source control measures should be taken to avoid health risks.
Key words:  BTEX  Chemical Enterprises  Ambient Air  Residence Community  Health Risk