引用本文:周敏,邵迎,冯强,张玉林,胡馨,陈忠礼.基于生物导向的水生态健康监测及评估概述[J].环境监控与预警,2022,14(5):39-48
ZHOU Min,SHAO Ying,FENG Qiang,ZHANG Yu-lin,HU Xin,CHEN Zhong-li.Review on the Biologically Oriented Water Ecological Health Monitoring and Assessment[J].Environmental Monitoring and Forewarning,2022,14(5):39-48
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基于生物导向的水生态健康监测及评估概述
周敏,邵迎,冯强,张玉林,胡馨,陈忠礼
重庆大学,三峡库区生态环境教育部重点实验室,重庆 400044
摘要:
环境监测是水生态健康监测与评估的重要环节,基于物理、化学监测的传统水质监测通常仅能提供独立的数据信息,不能全面、直观地反映水环境状况。基于生物等生命体导向的水生态监测通过生物对环境的响应,能够直接反应复杂水体状况,在水环境健康监测与评估中占据重要地位。基于病原微生物、指示生物介绍了生物监测中的常规生物指标,总结了包括藻类、无脊椎动物和鱼类在内的常见指示生物在不同类型污染水体中的环境指示作用。从生物毒性效应出发介绍了常用的毒性效应测试方法、分析了污染物在不同生物学水平的响应,从而指明生物毒性效应在水环境健康评估中的发展优势。再从生态完整性角度阐述了生态完整性评价的一般方法和新兴分子生物学技术在水生态健康评估中的应用。重点指出环境毒理学和分子生物学在水环境监测的优势,以期为更加科学精确地进行水生态健康监测预警提供支撑。
关键词:  水质监测  毒性效应  指示生物  有害结局路径  生态完整性  环境DNA
DOI:
分类号:X826
基金项目:国家自然科学基金青年科学基金项目(51909015)
Review on the Biologically Oriented Water Ecological Health Monitoring and Assessment
ZHOU Min,SHAO Ying,FENG Qiang,ZHANG Yu-lin,HU Xin,CHEN Zhong-li
Chongqing University, Key Laboratory of the Three Gorges Reservoir Region’s EcoEnvironment,Chongqing 400044, China
Abstract:
Environmental monitoring is an important part of water ecological health evaluation. Traditional chemical based water quality monitoring usually provides only a few pieces of data, which could not reflect the reality state of the water body. Biologically oriented monitoring of the water environment directly responds to complex water conditions through the response of organisms to the environment, and occupies an important position in water health monitoring and assessment. To this end, this paper introduces conventional biological indicators in bio monitoring and summarises the environmental indicators of common indicator organisms including algae, invertebrates and fish in different types of polluted water bodies, based on pathogenic microorganisms and indicator organisms. The common methods for testing toxicity effects are introduced from the perspective of bio toxicity effects, and the responses of pollutants at different biological levels are analysed, thus indicating the advantages of the development of bio toxicity effects in the assessment of water environment health. The general approach to ecological integrity assessment and the application of emerging molecular biology techniques in water ecological health assessment are then described from the perspective of ecological integrity. It highlights the advantages of environmental toxicology and molecular biology in water environment monitoring, in order to provide support for more scientific and accurate water ecological health monitoring and early warning.
Key words:  Water quality monitoring  Toxic effects  Indicator organisms  Adverse Outcome Pathway (AOP)  Ecological integrity  Environmental DNA (eDNA)