引用本文:周冏,温倩倩,康晶,罗海江,封雪.农业面源污染对我国农村地表水的影响与对策研究[J].环境监控与预警,2022,14(6):1-7
ZHOU Jiong, WEN Qian-qian, KANG Jing, LUO Hai-jiang, FENG Xue.Study on the Impact of Agricultural Non point Source Pollution on Rural Surface Water Quality in China and Countermeasures[J].Environmental Monitoring and Forewarning,2022,14(6):1-7
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农业面源污染对我国农村地表水的影响与对策研究
周冏,温倩倩,康晶,罗海江,封雪
中国环境监测总站,国家环境保护环境监测质量控制重点实验室,北京 100012
摘要:
基于2015—2021年我国农村地表水环境质量监测数据,分析了农村地表水环境质量状况特征;选取农业农村社会经济活动相关参数,与农村地表水中主要超标因子的超标比例进行了相关性分析;以2020年为基准年,对全国31个行政区,涵盖农村地表水水质状况、农业农村活动水平和污染压力、环境容量3个方面的9个指标进行了聚类分析。结果表明,我国农村地表水的变化趋势、季节特点和主要超标因子等表现出明显的农业面源污染特征;乡村人口、农业投入品使用量和经济作物种植比例等参数与主要超标指标具有较强的相关性(R>0.9);聚类分析将全国31个行政区划分为7种不同的农业面源污染类型。提出,应根据不同地区农业面源污染特点,因地制宜地推进标准化规模养殖、畜禽粪污资源化利用、化肥减量行动、高效低风险农药推广等农业面源污染治理措施,进一步加大农村生活污水处理设施建设,同时,完善农村环境质量监测网络,加强农业面源污染监测和评估。
关键词:  农业面源污染  农村地表水  农村环境监测  影响因素  相关分析  聚类分析
DOI:
分类号:X84
基金项目:国家重点研发计划资助项目(2018YFC1800306):江苏省环境监测科研基金资助项目(2105)
Study on the Impact of Agricultural Non point Source Pollution on Rural Surface Water Quality in China and Countermeasures
ZHOU Jiong, WEN Qian-qian, KANG Jing, LUO Hai-jiang, FENG Xue
State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Quality Control in Environmental Monitoring, China National Environmental Monitoring Center, Beijing 100012, China
Abstract:
Based on the monitoring data of rural surface water environmental quality in China from 2015 to 2021, the characteristics of rural surface water environmental quality has been analyzed. Relevant parameters of agricultural and rural social and economic activities were selected, and the correlation analysis was carried out with the proportion of major factors exceeding the standard in rural surface water. Taking 2020 as the base year, a cluster analysis was carried out on 9 indicators in 31 administrative regions across the country, covering three aspects: rural surface water quality, agricultural and rural activity level and pollution pressure, and environmental capacity. The results showed that the change trend, seasonal characteristics and main over standard factors of rural surface water in China showed obvious agricultural non point source pollution characteristics. The parameters such as rural population, agricultural input use and economic crop planting proportion have strong correlation with the main indicators exceeding the standard (R>0.9); Cluster analysis divides 31 administrative regions into 7 different types of agricultural non point source pollution. According to the characteristics of agricultural non point source pollution in different regions, some points are recommen ded such as promotion of standardized scale breeding, resource utilization of livestock and poultry manure, chemical fertilizer reduction action, promotion of efficient low risk pesticides and other agricultural non point source pollution control measures according to local conditions, further increase of the construction of rural domestic sewage treatment facilities, improvement of the rural environmental quality monitoring network, and strengthening the monitoring and evaluation of agricultural non point source pollution.
Key words:  Rural non point source pollution  Rural surface water  Rural environment monitoring  Influencing factors  Correlation analysis  Cluster analysis