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江苏近岸海域表层海水微塑料的 组成与赋存特征研究
张晓昱1, 张梦亦2, 魏爱泓1, 周超凡1, 郑江鹏1, 付丹1, 李海燕3
1.江苏省环境监测中心;2.江苏海洋大学环境与化学工程学院;3.连云港市环境监测中心
摘要:
我国的监测调查数据显示,塑料垃圾已占我国海滩垃圾数量的75%以上,海洋塑料垃圾占总垃圾高达87%,且在海面和海滩中的占比均呈逐渐增加的趋势。针对江苏近岸海州湾、辐射沙脊群等典型海域,以连云港、盐城和南通三个沿海城市,按照由近及远的布点原则,分别于沿岸、近岸共各布设6个点位开展监测分析。结果表明:粒径分布:15站和24站LMP占比较高,其它站点为NMP占比最高,占比高达84%,即粒径较小的微塑料占比最高,但总体与珠江口和长江口等受人影响较大的地区相比,丰度较低;在6个站点中,表层海水中MP的丰度范围为0.09~1.58个/m3,六个站点中MP平均含量为0.46个/m3,MP丰度按照从小到大排列顺序为:36站<26站<37站<24站<15站<59站,MP含量最高的是59站,含量最低的是36站,59站点丰度约为丰度最低36站点的3倍左右;在微塑料类型方面:NMP类型种类最多,高达25种,其中聚丙烯所占的比重最大,59站位微塑料类型最多。因此,应强化我国塑料废物管理政策,制定精准管控政策,实行规范化排放;提高公众对微塑料污染和危害的认识,加强对内陆水域的管理;在重点工业企业和污水处理厂自行监测中增设微塑料监测项目,优化现有的监测体系等。
关键词:  江苏近岸海域  表层海水  微塑料  存赋特征  防治对策
DOI:
分类号:X522
基金项目:江苏省环境监测中心课题(编号:1919)、江苏海洋大学创新基金课题(编号:Z2017003)、2019年度江苏省大学生创新项目和江苏省环境监测中心课题(编号:1719).
Composition and Existential Characteristics of Microplastics in Surface Waters of Jiangsu Coastal Area
张晓昱
Abstract:
he monitoring data show that plastic waste has accounted for more than 75% of the beach waste in my country, and marine plastic waste accounts for 87% of the total waste, and its proportion in the sea and beaches is gradually increasing. In response to the pollution of microplastics in the coastal waters of Jiangsu, the surface waters of the coastal cities of Lianyungang, Yancheng and Nantong were selected as the research objects, and 6 sites were selected for sampling and analysis. The results show that the particle size distribution: station 15 and 24 LMP accounted for a relatively high proportion, other stations are all NMP accounted for the highest proportion, accounting for up to 84%, that is, the smaller particle size microplastics accounted for the highest proportion, but the overall proportion of the Pearl River Estuary and the abundance of the Yangtze River estuary and other areas affected by humans is lower; in the 6 sites, the abundance of MP ranges from 0.09-1.58/m3, and the average content of MP in the six sites is 0.46/m3. The order of MP abundance in descending order is: station 36 < station 26 < station 37 < station 24 < station 15< station 59, the highest MP content is station 59, the lowest content is station 36, and the station 59 have a The lowest abundance is about 3 times that of station 36; in terms of microplastic types: NMP types are the largest, up to 25 types, of which polypropylene accounts for the largest proportion, and station 59 have the most microplastics. Therefore, we should put forward the prevention and control countermeasures of microplastics: strengthen China's plastic waste management policy, promote and resort to the implementation of effective; formulate precise control policies, implement standardized discharge; raise public awareness of microplastics pollutions and hazards; strengthen the management of inland waters; add microplastics monitoring items to the self-monitoring of key industrial enterprises and sewage treatment plants to optimize existing Monitoring system.
Key words:  Coastal waters off Jiangsu  Surface seawater  Microplastic  Existential characteristic  Prevention and control countermeasures